Content Analysis

1. Understand the steps involved in a content analysis study (this website may be helpful:

      A. Define and limit the populartion

      B. Unitize

      C. Creating a coding manual

      • Exhaustive
      • Mutually Exclusive
      • Coding Rules

      D. Training coders and establishing acceptable intercoder (interrater) reliability

      E. Sample Messages

      F. Coding

      G. Analysis (next week)

2. To get a feel for this, use COM 523 Code Announcements posted on September 7, September 29, October 3, November 20, and December 13.

RQ: Do announcements in online courses use nonverbal immediacy behaviors?

Coding Manual:

Unit: Each announcment is one unit - coding for fun fonts and nonverbal emotive indicators:

Fun fonts and nonverbal emotive indicators: Use of “fun” fonts: less formal and business like; use of emoticons, manipulation of punctuation to indicate emotions (“interesting . . .”; not emphasis for assignments etc.), so multiple exclamations count!!! (single do not); nonverbal vocalizations (“hmmm . . .,  soooo?”); and/or emoticons (as symbols or created ;).

         For each announcment code a 3, 2 or 1:

3 is Emotion expressive: Often uses fun fonts and/or other nonverbal emotive indicators such as, emoticons, vocalizations etc.(more than three nonverbal emotive indicators used in the announcement)

2 is Emotion low: One or two uses of fun fonts and/or other nonverbal emotive indicators

1 is Emotionless: No use of fun fonts or other nonverbal emotive indicators

Did you have any questions about coding as 3, 2, or 1?

3. Practice set for Intercoder (interrater) reliability:

Create excel file using data at right- coders as columns; units as rows - no column or row headings interrater file

Save excel file as csv file


Go to:

Choose  nominal, 2 coders: ReCal2  

Upload file and hit calculate reliability

Would you accept conclusions drawn from this dataset?  



COM 582 Descriptive and Experimental Research in Communication


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